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Intro

Coursera: 悖论:思维的魔方

 with  陈波
“悖论”(paradox)指思维中深层次的矛盾,并且是难解的矛盾。它们是巨大且艰深的理智难题,以触目惊心的形式向我们展示了:我们的看似合理、有效的“共识”、“前提”、“推理规则”在某些地方出了问题,我们思维中最基本的概念、原理、原则在某些地方潜藏着风险。悖论对人类理智构成严重挑战,并在人类的认知发展和科学发展中起重要作用。

本课程将讲授历史上已经提出的一些著名悖论,涉及的论题有:一些扰人的二难困境;模糊性:连锁悖论;芝诺悖论和无穷之迷;逻辑-数学悖论;语义悖论;休谟问题和归纳悖论;认知悖论;合理行动和决策的悖论;道德悖论;中国古代文化中的悖论;对于悖论的进一步思考,如此等等。

我认为,大学里应该传授两类知识:一类知识“实实在在”,另一类知识“奇奇怪怪”。

学习第一类知识后,你能够成为此类知识的使用者和传播者,成为社会所需要的合格的劳动者,能够直接在企事业单位就业,也为自己谋一份体面而有尊严的生活。

学习第二类知识,则有助于打破你的思维定势,开拓你的理智空间,激发你的理智好奇心,使你养成独立思考的习惯,培养一种健康、温和的怀疑主义态度,培养一种宽容和接纳的文明态度,能够成为民主社会中独立自主、理性负责的公民,经进一步深造后,有可能成为知识的创造者和生产者,成为各行各业中的精英人物。

“悖论”(paradox)典型地属于“奇奇怪怪”的知识。

Syllabus

预备知识和悖论概述


上帝悖论和连锁悖论


芝诺悖论和无穷之谜


逻辑-集合论悖论和语义悖论


语义悖论、归纳悖论和认知悖论


各种认知悖论


认知悖论和合理行动悖论


道德悖论和中国古代悖论


中国古代悖论


关于悖论的进一步思考


拓展材料:研讨会实录及学生报告


期末考试


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Cost Free Online Course (Audit)
Subject Philosophy
Institution Peking University
Provider Coursera
Language Chinese
Certificates Paid Certificate Available
Hours 3-5 hours a week
Calendar 12 weeks long
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